Complex Subject. Сложное подлежащее

Структура оборота: “существительное в общем падеже или личное местоимение в именительном падеже, стоящее перед сказуемым, + инфинитив, следующий за сказуемым”. Русские переводы таких предложений обычно начинаются с полагают, считают, утверждают, известно, что…

He is said to be writing his course paper. – Говорят, что он пишет свою

курсовую работу.

Сложное подлежащее употребляется со следующими глаголами в страдательном залоге: to hear – слышать; to see – видеть; to know – знать; to think – думать; to report – сообщать; to expect – ожидать; to say – говорить; to believe – полагать; to consider – полагать, считать; to assume – оценивать.

Примеры:

You are supposed to be working now. – Предполагается, что вы сейчас

работаете.

He was thought to be very rich. – Думали, что он очень богат.

He is said to be a very talented writer. – Говорят, что он очень талантливый

писатель.

Сложное подлежащее употребляется со следующими глаголами в действительном залоге: to seem – казаться; to appear – казаться; to prove – оказаться; to turn out – оказаться и со словосочетаниями: to be likely / unlikely – вероятно / маловероятно; to be certain – определенно, наверняка; to be sure – определенно, безусловно.

Примеры:

Bill turned out to be a very good translator. – Билл оказался очень

хорошим переводчиком.

He is certain to have kept his word. – Наверняка, он сдержал свое слово.

He seems to know English. – Кажется, он знает английский язык.

Не забывайте, что инфинитивные формы Perfect и Perfect Continuous обозначают действия, предшествующие действию сказуемого.

3) The For - to - Infinitive Construction. Инфинитивная конструкция с предлогом for.

В этой конструкции перед существительным или местоимением находится предлог for. Сама конструкция может играть роль раз­личных членов предложения При переводе на русский язык используется или придаточное предложение или инфинитив.

It will be very pleasantfor us to spenda week in England. –Нам будет очень

приятно провести неделю в Англии.
There was nothing elsefor me to say. – Мне больше нечего было сказать.
It isfor you to decide. Вам решать.
Here are some booksfor you to read. – Вот несколько книг для вашего

чтения (вам почитать).

It is perfectly possible for union and management to cooperateon some things

and to compete on others. — Профсоюз и руководство предприятия вполне

могут сотрудничать в одних областях и конкурировать в других.

Practice

Ex. 1. Translate the sentences from English into Russian paying attention to the infinitives.

1. Не wanted to get there early, but he failed.

2. То know everything is to know nothing.

3. A lot of people choose to work from home in order to save money, but you have to be careful if you choose this option.

4. The secret of business is to know something that nobody else knows. (Aristotle Onassis)

5. Nature has many secrets to be discovered yet.

6. He is going to take part in the conference to be held in Moscow.

7. The first task of any person wishing to start a business is to get capital.

8. Financial analysts help people decide how to invest their money.

9. He was glad to have been given a new job.

10. I have nothing to say. Ask Annie, she was the first to come.

11. Does it pay to invest in advertising and promotion?

12. “The most important thing is to believe in yourself and believe in your business, confidence breeds success", he said.

Ex. 2. Choose the correct infinitive from the box and translate the sentences.

to delegate, to find, to answer,to get, to lose, to reduce, to have, to represent, to live, to read

1. The manager must learn ….. both work and responsibility.

2. The Republicans promised ….. taxes before the last election.

3. Many elderly people find it very difficult …..on their pensions.

4. It’s very difficult ….. a grant to go to college.

5. The UK public elects Members of Parliament (MPs) ….. their interests and concerns in the House of Commons.

6. A wise man ought ….. money in his head, but not in his heart. (Jonathan Swift)

7. It's easy for me ….. this question.

8. …..a lot is to know much.

9. She risks……everything if she follows his advice. It is not worth taking.

10. They tried their best ….. solutions to the problem.

Ex. 3. Work in pairs. Make up questions and answer them. Give your reasons:

What is more pleasant (difficult, interesting, dangerous) ….

1. to criticize or to be criticized?

2. to invite guests or to be invited?

3. to teach somebody or to be taught?

4. to take care of somebody or to be taken care of?

5. to help somebody or to be helped?

Ex. 4. 1)Tell the purpose behind the following gestures and activities by adding the appropriate infinitives. Add some more verbs to the list below.

Pattern: to smile

St. A: We smile to show pleasure.

St. B: We smile to express joy.

St. C: We smile to greet people, etc.

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1. to cry; 2. to applaud; 3. to nod one's head; 4. to raise eyebrows; 5. to learn foreign languages; 6. to invite somebody to the restaurant; 7. to go to the concert (the art gallery, the country,the library, sport club, the internet-café, etc.); 8. to ask questions; 9. to work; 10.to enter the institute.

2) More than half of what we communicate is communicated not through words but through body language.Describe some gestures typical for people from different countries. Discuss them in the group. Use infinitives.

Ex. 5. Сombine the parts from two columns and make as many sentences as you can. Translate your sentences.

1. Real estate agents help people 2. I want you 3. I’d like you 4. We expect the company 5. Social workers help people 6. She is expected 7. The water seems 8. The delegation is reported 9. He is likely 10. He is sure 11. She is said 12. The car was seen 13. It is very difficult for them a) to meet Mr Brown. b) overcome problems. c) to meet their obligations d) to be very beautiful. e) to be boiling. f) to be asked about it. g) to meet our chief accountant. h) to come any minute. i) to have left London. j) to know her address. k) to be reliable. l) to disappear. m) buy and sell houses.

Ex. 6. Match the sentences with the first words in their translations.Translate the sentences.

1. MPs and Members of the House of Lords are expected to adhere to high standards in their public life.

2. Money is known to speak all languages.

3. She is said to be learning English now.

4. My elder brother is considered to be a good manager.

5. He is supposed to have started his own business.

6. They are unlikely to arrive tomorrow.

7. Our new director seems to have graduated from the law faculty of the

University.

---------------------------

a) Известно, …

b) Считают, …

c) Говорят, …

d) Ожидается, …

e) Полагают, …

f) Кажется, …

g) Маловероятно, …

Ex. 7. Choose the correct option. Translate the sentences.

1. The Greeks seem to have known / to have been known papyrus as early as the beginning of the 5th century BC.

2. A Scottish sailor, Alexander Selkirk, was marooned (был высажен на необитаемом острове) on one of the islands between 1704 and 1709, and his experiences are supposed to have inspired / to be inspired the novel Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe.

3. Let her do / to do it herself. She is considered to be / being a careful

researcher and can't stand being helped.

4. You look rather tired. You are unlikely to have finished / to finish the work in time. You had better going / go home now.

5. The pre-1914 gold standard is considered by many to be / to have been the golden age of international monetary arrangements at the beginning of the 20th century.

6.He wants the book to return / to be returned tomorrow.

7. He was made to leave / leave the town and did not want to spend the last money on renting an apartment in the suburbs.

8. If the manufacturer wants his goods to sell / to be sold,he must maintain quality.

Ex.8. How can you finish these sentences?

1. It would be useful for them to know…

2. It is advisable for him to find out…

3. It is necessary for us to check…

4. It is difficult for me to decide…

5. It is important for you to make…

Ex.9. Read these lines from the poem. What do you think of them?

What is this life, if full of care,

We have no time to stand and stare?

(From William H.Davies)

Ex. 10. Choose the suitable infinitive from the list. Translate the sentences from English into Russian. Consult the dictionary.

The president of the company agreed, stating "It is a good time for companies 1__________.” a) to set up and run the business.
The Falkland Islands Meat Company (FIMCo) was established to give wool farmers an opportunity 2__________ as well as traditional wool farming. b) to make their marketing more efficient.
Our adviser provided excellent support and advice to help raise the capital 3________ c) to find out
During the startup phase, it can be easy 4_________but there can be serious consequences for your business if your projections are not realistic. d) to develop financial infrastructure
It is impossible to create successful small and mediumsize businesses, 5___________, and transform large industrial businesses without high quality management and entrepreneurship. e) to help them with hiring and paperwork.
Banks and mutual fund companies will need more financial analysts 6__________ which stocks and bonds they should buy or sell. f) to diversify into meat production
Organizations will need human resources assistants 7___________ g) struggle to survive
You must research your market 8________ what makes your customers buy. h) to make over-optimistic forecasts
Millions of young people face bleak employment opportunities. They see their parents 9_____________, and find it even harder for themselves. i) to recommend

Ex. 11. Match the parts of the sentences. Translate them.

1. National currencies are considered 2. She doesn't seem 3. Employment of loan officers is expected 4. Why are banks expected 5. The changes are likely a) to grow at a rate about as fast as the average for all jobs through 2018. b) to be announcedin the next year budget. c) to be as strong as the national economies, which support them. d) to actively use telecommunications and computer systems? e) to understand me.


Ex. 12. Translate the sentences paying attention to the usage of infinitive constructions.

1. Among the unemployed, the number of persons who lost their job and did not expect to be recalled to work increased by 298,000 to 4.7 million in November.

2. The delegates seemed positive about the event and felt it was a good forum for new marketing ideas to be aired.

3. The link between health and income seems pretty uncontroversial: healthier children are likely to stay in school longer and learn more, earning more when they enter the workforce.

4. The number of jobs for human resources assistants is expected to grow about

as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2016.

5. In banking practice, the bank payment is, of course, expected to be made with interest.

6. During times when Parliament is not sitting, the Government can ask for the

House of Commons to be recalled.

The Participle. Причастие

Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, сочетающая свойства глагола, прилагательного и наречия. Причастие I (Participle I) образуется путём прибавления окончания -ing к инфинитиву глагола без частицы to: reading – читающий, speaking – говорящий.

Перед суффиксом -ing одна согласная, если она стоит после краткой ударной гласной, удваивается: to run (бегать) – running, to prefer (предпочитать) – preferring.

В глаголах to lie (лежать), to tie (связывать) буква i перед суффиксом -ing переходит в у: to lie –lying (лежащий, лежа); to tie – tying (связывающий, связывая).

Причастие II (Participle II) образуется путём прибавления суффикса -edк основе правильного глагола, у неправильных глаголов – это 3-я форма глагола: developed – развитый, found – найденный.

Функции определения и обстоятельства приведены в таблице. Сравните примеры. Обратите внимание на различия в переводе причастий I и II.

Употребление причастий I и II

Функции причастия I Пример Перевод
Определение Running water is pure. I have bought a book containing necessary figures about the profits of blue chips Проточнаявода чистая. Я купила книгу, содержащую необходимые цифры о прибылях «голубых фишек».
Обстоятельство While goingto the Institute I met one of my old friends. Having studied the problem in detail we were able to start the pilot project. Идяв институт, я встретил одногоиз моих старых друзей. Детально изучив проблему, мы смогли начать пилотный проект.
Функции причастия II Пример Перевод
Определение The advertising project discussed at the meeting yesterday is very interesting. Рекламный проект, обсуждённый на совещании, очень интересен.
Обстоятельство When given time to think he always answered well. Когда ему давали время подумать, он всегда хорошо отвечал.

Причастие I

Формы причастия

Форма причастия Активный залог Страдательный залог
Indefinite asking being asked
Perfect having asked having been asked

Причастие I употребляется при образовании времён группы Continuous. Причастие II употребляется при образовании времён группы Perfect и страдательного залога.

Participle I Indefinite обозначает действие, одновременное с действием глагола-сказуемого.

While translatingdifficult texts we use electronic dictionaries. –Переводя

трудные тексты, мы пользуемся электронными словарями

Participle I Perfect обозначает действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым.

Having read the book I returned it to the library. – Прочитав книгу, я вернул

её в библиотеку

В функции обстоятельства Participle I Indefinite Active чаще всего стоит в начале предложения и переводится на русский язык деепричастием несовершенного вида.

Translating the article he consulted the dictionary. – Переводя статью, он

пользовался словарём.

Перед таким причастием в функции обстоятельства часто стоят союзы when или while. Такие словосочетания переводятся либо деепричастным оборотом (или деепричастием) с опущением союза, либо придаточным предложением, которое начинается с союзов когда, в то время как.

While translating the article the student consulted the dictionary. –Переводя статью, студент пользовался словарём. / Когда студент переводил статью, он пользовался словарём.

Participle I Indefinite Passive в функции обстоятельства (времени, причины) переводится обстоятельственным придаточным предложением. При этом в качестве подлежащего русского придаточного предложения употребляется подлежащее английского предложения.

Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads. – Так как мост

Был построен из дерева, он не мог выдержать больших нагрузок.

Participle I Perfect Active переводится деепричастием совершенного вида.

Having built a house he began building a greenhouse. – Построив дом, он

начал строить парник.

Participle I Perfect Passive переводится на русский язык обстоятельственным придаточным предложением.

Having been built of concrete, the house was cold in winter. – Так как дом был

построен из бетона, зимой в нём было холодно.

Причастие II

Причастие II правильных глаголов имеет ту же форму, что и Past Indefinite, и образуется при помощи прибавления суффикса -ed к основе глагола to ask - asked, to help - helped. Причастие II - неличная форма глагола (III основная форма глагола), имеет одну неизменяемую форму со страдательным значением и обозначает действие, которое испытывает на себе лицо или предмет.

The film discussed in the talk-show yesterday was interesting. – Фильм,

обсуждавшийся на ток-шоувчера, был интересный.
Перед причастием II в функции обстоятельства могут стоять союзы if, unless, when. В таком случае английское причастие переводится обстоятельственным придаточным предложением, в котором подлежащее то же, что и в главном предложении.

If built of the local stone, the road will serve for years. – Если построить

дорогу (Если дорога построена) из местного камня, она будет служить

долгие годы.

Конструкции с причастием

1) Объектный падеж с причастием I состоит из личного местоимения в объектном падеже или существительного в общем падеже и причастия.

I saw her crossing the street. – Я видел, как она переходит улицу.

Конструкция «объектный падеж с причастием I» употребляется тогда, когда говорящий хочет подчеркнуть, что действие, выраженное причастием, не завершено и протекает в момент речи. В этой конструкции употребляется только одна форма причастия I - Participle I Indefinite Active. Местоимение в объектном падеже или существительное в общем падеже называют лицо или предмет, производящее действие. Эта конструкция употребляется после глаголов чувственного восприятия (например, to see, to hear, to watch, to feel) и переводится придаточным предложением.

They watched him entering the house. – Они наблюдали за тем, как он

входит в дом.
I saw John passing our house. – Я видел, как Джон проходил мимо

нашего дома.

2) Конструкция «объектный падеж с причастием II»называет действие, направленное на лицо или предмет, выраженные личным местоимением в объектном падеже или существительным в общем падеже. Эта конструкция переводится на русский язык в основном придаточным предложением. Она употребляется после глаголов чувственного восприятия to see, to hear, to feel, to watch и др.; после глаголов, выражающих желание to want, to wish и др.; после глаголов to have, to get.

We heard his name mentioned. – Мы слышали, как упомянули его имя.
I want the work done. – Я хочу, чтобы работа была сделана.
I’ve had my photo taken. – Я сфотографировался.

Такие предложения с данной конструкцией переводятся простыми предложениями.

3) Независимый причастный оборот.Эта сложная конструкция употребляется, как правило, в письменной речи. Она не характерна для разговорной речи. Умение узнавать этот оборот облегчит понимание английского специального текста, так как структура английского предложения не совпадает со структурой русского предложения. Независимый причастный оборот состоит из существительного в общем падеже или личного местоимения в именительном падеже и причастия I и II, он отделен от остальной части предложения запятой.

Независимый причастный оборот имеет свое собственное под­лежащее, отличное от подлежащего, к которому относится дей­ствие, выраженное личной формой глагола. Независимый причастный оборот может занимать любое место в предложении: перед подле­жащим, после группы сказуемого или в середине предложения как вводная группа слов.

Такие обороты на русский язык обычно переводятся обстоятельственным придаточным предложени­ем причины, времени, условия, уступки или сопутствующих об­стоятельств с союзами когда, поскольку, так как, ввиду того что, после того как, если или независимым предложением с союзами а, и, причем и другими.

The problem being easy, the students solved it at once. — Так как

(поскольку) задача была легкой, студенты сразу ее решили.

Time permitting, they will discuss the matter. – Если время позволит, они

обсудят этот вопрос завтра.

The validity of the new theory proved, it was commonly accepted. — После

того, как новая теория была обоснова­на, ее везде приняли.

His work finished, he went home. – Когда его работа была закончена, он

пошёл домой.

Practice

Ex.1. Translate the sentences with participles I and II.

1. Having made the decision, we have to live with it.

2. People wishing to stand as an MP must be over 18 years of age, and a British citizen, or citizen of a Commonwealth country or the Republic of Ireland.

3. Having travelled a lot, he can tell us a lot about other countries.

4. A friendship founded on business is better than a business founded on friendship. (John Rockefeller)

5. Why is branding so important when launching a new product?

6. Having done the question-and-answer exercises, the students began to

write the annotation of the article.

7. I looked at the bookshelf: one book was missing.

8. Knowing English well he was able to read this magazine.

9. The Professor did not exaggerate when he spoke of the widespread interest excited by his new psychological experiments.

10. A well-bred woman does nothing which shall make people talk of her.

11. Lost time is never found again.

12. They are reconstructing the house built in the 18th century.

Ex. 2. Choose the verb in the form of Participle II from the box to complete the sentences.

produced, offered, sold, paid, tested, produced, taken, obtained, approved

I. All goods (1)…….in this department store are of very high quality.

2. The measures (2)……. improved the quality of goods and now all goods (3)…….there are in great demand.

3. Goods especially (4)…….by the consum­ers were exhibited last year.

4. Special attention (5)……. tothe quality of consumer goods is bringing results. 5. We hope that the majority of consumer goods (6)……. in our country in the nearest future willbe at the world stand­ard level.

6. The equipment (7)……. at the plant required improvement.

7. The information (8) ……. is very valuable.

8. The new job (9)……. to me seems very interesting.

Ex.3. Write down the English equivalents of the following participles.

Например, 11 advertising.

Инфинитив Причастие 1 Причастие 2
1. to develop developing развивающий (ся) …………………….. развитый
2. to buy ………………….. покупающий bought купленный
3. to sign ……………………. подписывающий signed подписанный
4. to offer …………………. предлагающий offered предложенный
5. to discuss discussing обсуждающий ……………………… обсуждённый
6. to use using использующий ……………………… используемый, использованный
7. to choose ………………….. выбирающий chosen выбранный
8. to require requiring требующий …………………… требуемый
9. to pay paying оплачивающий ……………………… оплаченный
10. to consume сonsuming потребляющий …………………. потребляемый
11. to advertise ………………….. рекламирующий advertised рекламируемый

Ex. 4. Complete the following.

Pattern: (When) expressing sympathy...

- (When) expressing sympathy we say 'I'm sorry for you'.

1. (When) expressing one's apology.......

2. (When) congratulating somebody on the birthday.......

3. (When) expressing our objection…….

4. (When) being pleased…….

5. (When) com­forting somebody......

6. (When) being angry…….

7. (When) praising some­body…….

8. (When) arguing…….

9. (When) admitting our fault…….

Ex. 5. Choose the correct variant of the participle.

1. The girl (writing, written) on the blackboard is our best student.

2. Read attentively everything (writing, written) here, the details are very important.

3. The wall (surrounding, surrounded) the house was very high and we couldn’t see anything.

4. The tests (doing, done) by the undergraduates were easy.

5. We listened to the Russian folk songs (sing­ing, sung) by the girls.

6. Translate the words (writing, written) on the bottom of the page.

7. We could not see the sun (covering, covered) by dark clouds.

8. The (losing, lost) keys were found at last.

9. She was reading the book (buying, bought) at the books fair the day before.

10. Yesterday we were at a conference (organiz­ing, organized) by the advertising department.

11. (Taking, taken) the little girl by the hand, she led her across the street.

12. Protective tariffs (introduced, introducing) by the government last month may lead to conflicts in foreign trade.

13. Enterprises (manufacturing, manufactured) final goods get higher profits than enterprises which only export resources.

14. Small nations (importing, imported) large amounts of foodstuffs and natural resources are more dependent on the world market.

Ex. 6. Use the verbs in brackets as Indefinite Participle or Perfect Participle.

1. (to do) his homework, he was trying not to make any mistakes.

2. (to do) his homework, he began to watch the final match of his favourite football team.

3. (to sell) fruit, he looked back from time to time, hop­ing to see his friends.

4. (to sell) all the fruit, he went to see his friends.

5. (to look) through some magazines, I came across an interesting article about the causes of earthquakes.

6. (to write) out and (to learn) all the new words, he was able to pass his exam well easily.

7. (to live) in the south of our country, he cannot enjoy the beauty of St. Petersburg's White Nights in summer.

8. (to buy) some juice and cakes, we went to the counter with vegetables.

9. (to sit) near the fire, we felt very warm.

Ex. 7. Choose participle I or participle II. Translate these word combinations. Make up sentences with them.

1. prices (affecting/ affected) by market forces

2. farms (growing/grown) wheat and other crops

3. enterprises (working/worked) in this sector

4. supply of agricultural products (depended/depending) on weather conditions

5. a book (dealing/dealt) with problems of management techniques

6. consumption (influencing/influenced) by inflation

7. companies (running/run) successfully

8. goods (advertised/advertising) on TV

9. recently (buying/bought) equipment

Ex. 8. Can you find the endings to the sentences? Write them down and translate them.


The weather permitting, ……

It being very cold, ……..

The sun having risen,………

The article having been translated, …

The UK has many political parties, …

There being a lot of things to discuss,

All the work being done, ………

The model having been tested , ……

This being the case, ……..

It being very late, ………

a) we could recommend it for mass

production.

b) we continued our way.

c) the meeting lasted for two hours.

d) we shall go to the country.

e) the secretary left the office.

f) we decided to put off our plans till

tomorrow.

g) the student showed it to the

teacher.

h) we could not go for a walk.

i) the main three being Conservative,

Labour, and Liberal Democrats.

j) manufacturers will, no doubt

continue to invest money in

advertising.


Ex. 9. How good are you at translating sentences with participles?

1. Wishing to remain on top of the world economy, the US continues to invest heavily in production.

2. Rising prices are the sign of inflation.

3. There are more qualified people competing for a small number of positions.

4. Some delegates are more optimistic, believing that long term targets will not change.

5. Marketing is becoming more scientific across the world, with mathematical techniques applied to research.

6. In 2005 FIMCo also entered the local market, providing a reliable supply of quality mutton, lamb and beef to Falkland Islanders.

7. Research by Standard Life shows that the number of people wanting to work in retirement has increased rapidly.

8. In Europe, from 2009 onwards, the numbers of non-workers depending on the wealth created by others will grow—bad news for funding health care and pensions.

9. Today in western Europe there are 3.8 people working for every pensioner.

10.Quite apart from the amount of money spent each year on doctors' and approved medical treatment, huge sums are now spent on health foods and remedies of various kinds, from vi­tamin pills to mineral water, not to mention health clubs and keep-fit books and videos.

The Gerund. Герундий

Герундий –неличная форма глагола, обладающая одновременно свойствами существительного и глагола.Как существительное он может выполнять в предложении функции подлежащего, дополнения, определения и обстоятельства с предлогом. Как глагол может иметь после себя прямое дополнение и определяться наречием, иметь перфектную форму, категорию залога, а также выражать действие как процесс.

Герундий образуется путём прибавления окончания –ing к инфинитивной форме глагола без частицы to. Герундий выражает процесс действия.

В русском языке формы, аналогичной герундию, нет. На русский язык герундий переводится существительными, глаголами в неопределенной форме, деепричастиями, придаточными предложениями. Например:

Marketing requires careful planning.

Маркетинг требует тщательного планирования.

Students often have considerable difficulties in understanding the difference

between the Present Perfect and the Past Indefinite.
Студенты часто испытывают значительные трудности в понимании

различия между настоящим совершенным временем (глагола) и

прошедшим неопределенным (или: «в том, чтобы понять различие...»).

Формы герундия

Форма Активный залог Страдательный залог
Indefinite writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

Формы Indefinite Gerund обозначают действия, одновременные с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым.

He likes invitingfriends to his place. – Он любит приглашать друзей к себе.
He likes being invited to his friends. – Он любит, когда его приглашают к

себе его друзья.

Перфектные формы герундия (Perfect Gerund) обозначают действия, предшествующие действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым.

He is proud of having invited this man to his place. – Он гордится тем, что

пригласил этого человека к себе.
He was proud of having been invited to the party. – Он гордился тем, что его

пригласили на вечер.

Обладая свойствами глагола и существительного, герундий может выполнять функции всех членов предложения, кроме простого сказуемого:

1. подлежащего:

Reducing prices means attracting new customers to our products. - Снижение

цен означает привлечение новых потребителей к нашим товарам.

2. части сказуемого:

The personnel manager’s task is searchingfor qualified job applicants.

Задача менеджера по персоналу – поиск квалифицированной рабочей силы.

3. дополнения:

He gave up smoking. – Он бросил курить.

We insisted on taking part in this meeting. – Мы настаивали на том, чтобы принять участие в этом совещании.

4. обстоятельства(всегда с предлогом):

Before entering the Institute, he worked at the sales department of the plant.

Перед поступлением в институт он работал в отделе продаж завода.

The students should learn the meaning of foreign words by observinghow they

are used and by themselves using them. — Студенты должны узнавать

значения новых слов, наблюдая, как они употребляются, и употребляя их

самостоятельно.

5. определения:

The problem of developing small business in Russia is very important nowadays.- Проблема развития малого бизнеса в России очень важна сейчас.

The only method ofacquiringthe language is to use it. — Един­ственный

способ овладеть языком — это говорить на нем.

Употребление герундия

Функции Употребление герундия Перевод
1. Подлежащее Creating more jobs will reduce unemployment. Создание большeго количества рабочих мест сократит безработицу.
2. Часть сказуемого What he had always wanted was doing what he liked. Что ему всегда хотелось, так это делать то, что ему нравится.
3. Дополнение The car needs repairing. We insisted on their beginning the negotiations immediately. Машина нуждается в ремонте. Мы настаивали на том, чтобы они начали переговоры немедленно.
4. Определение He had some experience in working with people. У него был некоторый опыт работы с людьми.
5. Обстоятельство He reads English newspapers without using a dictionary. Он читает газеты на английском, не пользуясь словарем.

После таких глаголов, как to like, to dislike, to prefer и др., в качестве дополнения может употребляться как герундий, так и инфинитив.

После таких глаголов, как to avoid, to need, to mind (в значении возражать), to remember, to require, в качестве дополнения употребляется только герундий.

Глаголы to stop, to forget в зависимости от того, следует за ним герундий или инфинитив, имеют разные значения:

Не stopped to speak to me. – Он остановился, чтобы поговорить со мной.

Не stoppedspeaking. – Он перестал разговаривать.

После некоторых глаголов с предлогами и наречиями, а также после некоторых словосочетаний с предлогами употребляется только герундий. К ним относятся: to give up, to be afraid of, to be famous for, to be good at, to be fond of, to be interested in, to be proud of, to depend on, to insist on (upon), to object to, to prevent from, to succeed in, to think of, to go on…

После составных предлогов because of, thanks to, due to, owing to, instead of, in spite of, for the purpose of, of (no) use употребляется только герундий.

Practice

Ex. 1. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the used gerunds.

1. Personal selling means individual contact.

2.Learning rules without examples is of little use.

3. The success of your business depends much on your knowing how to manage

your money.

4. Business Link is also encouraging people with disabilities to think about starting

up their own business.

5. By raising an issue in the House of Commons, MPs can bring it to the attention

of the press and public.

6. During a crisis, employers are in a more advantageous position when hiring

employees.

7. Loan officers help businesses by loaning them money to get started or to buy

equipment.

8. Parliament and government both play a part in forming the laws of the United

Kingdom.

9. Keeping fit and staying healthy have become a growing industry.

10. They are proud of having won their competitors in this sector.

Ex. 2. Choose the correct word from the list below the line.

creating, choosing, signing, doing, believing, hiring, putting, building up, selecting, hearing, making

1. They regret ________ the contract.

2. I suggest ________ one currency to deal in.

3. You can fill this vacancy by _______ two part-time salesgirls.

4. I look forward to ______ from you.

5. ________ a business is a slow process.

6. He counted the money carefully before ______ it in his pocket.

7. _______ new jobs will reduce unemployment.

8. What are six things you like _______?

9. Thank you for _______ your order.

10. _____ how to advertise your company depends on what type of business it is. 11. Seeing is_______.

Ex. 3. Make up sentences, matching the suggested parts:


1. He doesn't know any­thing,….

2. The train is to leave in five

min­utes,…..

3. He has left already,…..

4. He has failed,…..

5. We have got plenty of time,…..

a) it's no use asking him questions.

b) it's no use ringing him up.

c) it's no use speaking with the

dean about it.

d) it's no use hiring a taxi.

e) it's no use helping him.


Ex. 4. Make up sentences, matching the suggested parts. Give your reasons for the choice made.

Pattern: 1) Dancing is popular in Latin America probably because people are very tem­peramental there.

2) Dancing gives one a lot of pleasure; you can relax and enjoy music.


Dancing

Surfing the Internet

Going to concerts

Playing hockey

Travelling

Figure skating

Learning to play the piano

Cooking

Studying Japanese

Listening to disks

Keeping fit

……takes a lot of time.

……is popular in...

……is a luxury for stu­dents.

……influences our thinking.

…....gives one pleasure.

……costs a lot of money.

……is something that everyone

does nowadays.

……is necessary not only for health.

……attracts more and more fans.

……is my hobby.


Speaking to an audience ……is always stressful.

Ex. 5. Choose the correct form.

1. We are surprised at his not (coming, having come) yesterday.

2. The teacher is sure of their (passing, having passed) the exam well tomorrow.

3. We rely on your (doing, having done) the work properly next week.

4. She objected to his (being sent, having been sent) there.

5. They insist on (telling, being told) about it.

6. He denies my (seeing, having seen) him yesterday.

7. They rely on your (informing, having informed) every­body tomorrow.

8. Nobody objects to the plan (having been discussed, being discussed) at

the next meeting.

9. They insisted on the work (doing, being done) within this week.

10. He hates (being disturbed, disturbing)people.

Ex. 6. Decide what prepositions are missing in the gaps. Consult the dictionary if necessary.

1. The success of your business depends much … your knowing how to manage your money.

2. Colleges are interested … recruiting mature students.

3. Without advertising there is no use … creating your product.

4. The boss insisted … his employees raising their educational level.

5. They were afraid … failing their partners.

6. Jules Vern succeeded … predicting moon journeys in his science fiction novels.

7. What would you say … increasing sales in this region?

8. We object … signing the contract on these terms.

Ex.7 . Explain the meaning of the ing-forms in the following word combinations and translate them:

1. an ironing board, an ironing woman;

2. teaching aids, a teaching man;

3. a swimming suit, a swimming girl, swimming the girl…, swimming is...;

4. no laughing matter, a laughing child;

5. landingtime, a landing plane;

6. talking points, a talking woman;

7. a driving license, a driving car;

8. awalking stick, walking is..., walking a dog he...;

9. no standing room, standing men;

10. parting words, parting they...

Ex. 8. Answer these questions. Use gerunds. Don’t give one-word answers. Work in pairs.

1. When did you start learning English? What do you think is the best way of

learning a foreign language?

2. Do you enjoy watching historical films?

3. What books are worth reading?

4. What are the most popular ways of spending weekends in your family?

5. Which is more satisfying: to give gifts or to receive them?

6. Are you good at solving problems?

7. Do you have any experience in working with people?

8. You are proud of having the best results in the group, aren't you?

9. Do you think keeping fit is important for a good manager?

10. What questions should people ask themselves before choosing a profession?

11. Why is being a manager a hard work?

12. When you are angry, are you in the habit of raising your voice?

13. You try to use every possible means for developing your professional skills, don’t you?

Ex.9. Check how good you are at translating. If you have any problems, see grammar commentaries.

1. Just producing creative ideas for advertising is no longer sufficient to become a

top marketing executive.

2. Due to the hiring changes major companies have stopped employing.

3. Parliament is responsible for approving new laws (legislation).

4. MPs can assist their constituents in a variety of ways, from making private

enquiries on your behalf, to raising matters publicly in the House of

Commons.

5.Sometimes firing can be avoided by transfer to another job.

6. Answering the question whether it is worth starting your own business a

person should consider entrepreneurship as a process.

7. The process of managing personnel involves coordinating activities of many

people.

8. They are proud of having won the tender, it was a tough competition.

9. Before carrying out the operation one should study all the instructions.
10. An important responsibility of production managers is directing and supervising the work of the production personnel.


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